In the last 45 years, India’s living kidney transplantation program has evolved a lot. Since 1995, when the Indian parliament passed a law about transplantation, people have been able to get transplants from dead people.
According to estimates, chronic kidney disease kills about 735,000 people every year worldwide. The prevalence of end-stage renal disease in India is somewhere between 151 and 232 per million people. As a general rule, about 220,000 people in India need kidney transplants. Against this, about 7500 kidney transplants are done in India at 250 kidney transplant centers every year. 90% come from living donors, and 10% come from dead donors. There is no national transplant registry. It means the data isn’t as accurate as it should be because there isn’t one.
Introduction to Kidney Transplant
When a kidney fails, it needs a replacement to perform its functions. As part of the process, the patient has an organ transplant. A healthy kidney is put inside the body to make the organ work better. When the kidneys can’t filter waste and fluid out of the body, high levels of fluid and waste build up in the body. This can raise the patient’s blood pressure and lead to kidney failure (also known as end-stage renal disease).
Those who have end-stage renal disease need to have waste removed from their bloodstream by dialysis (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis) or by getting a new kidney to stay alive. Kidney patients of all ages can get a transplant, from young to old people.
Latest Technologies for Kidney Transplantation.
The medical and surgical challenges of kidney transplantation have been overcome now. Today, more kidney transplant centers offer laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Also, a few provide robotic kidney transplantation. However, there aren’t any long-term studies in India that look at how kidney donors’ health will be in the long run.
Lifestyle diseases like diabetes and hypertension are becoming more common in India. After giving blood, people who have diabetes or high blood pressure have a four-fold higher chance of having proteinuria and a two-fold higher chance of having kidney failure. Therefore, it is important to keep track of kidney donors for a long time.
There have been a lot of changes in the field of urology over the last few decades. Many people use immunosuppressive drugs to stop early rejection episodes instead of high doses of steroids to prevent graft rejection. This led to fewer postoperative complications after transplant surgery. It uses less invasive methods to treat transplant surgery complications.
The Success of Kidney Transplant in India
Indian law made some amendments in 2011. This makes it possible for intensive care doctors to ask for organ donation in the case of brain death. Also, it makes it a requirement to have a national registry to keep track of both patients and donors. This helps in improving the rate of dead donations in India. A big part of this program’s success is ensuring that donors are properly certified and kept safe in intensive care units. For donations to happen, the hospitals have to make them happen.
Most donations were made to private hospitals in the past, but now only a few public hospitals participate in the program. Because most people who have a severe brain injury from a car accident end up in public hospitals because these are medical-legal cases, this program has a lot more potential in them.
In general, states in the South like Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh have done better with the dead donation program than other states. Chandigarh, a union territory in the north, has done well regarding its many donors per million people. In 2015, 0.5 people in India died and gave their organs to other people. Since 2012, this rate has risen three times.
The burden of kidney disease in India needs two strategies. First, it is important to pay more attention to the prevention and early detection of kidney disease, and on the other hand, there needs to be more attention paid to deceased donations. The government, public and private sector hospitals, as well as non-government groups, need to work together to improve the donation rate and deal with the shortage of organs.
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